Mathematics in C# 

Overview of Numbers 
Introduction 
If you consider it in the purest sense of a computer language like C, C++, Pascal, Visual Basic, and Java, etc, C# doesn't have its own builtin support for mathematics. It must borrow this functionality either from other libraries or from other language. Fortunately, all of this is particularly easy. To perform the basic algebraic and geometric operations in C#, you can use methods of the Math class of the .NET Framework. As seen in the previous lesson, you can also take advantage of Visual Basic's very powerful library of functions. This library is one of the most extended set of functions of various area of business mathematics. 
We know different ways to declare a variable of a numeric type. Here are examples: using System; class Program { static int Main() { short sNumber; int iNumber; double dNumber; decimal mNumber; return 0; } }
One of the primary rules to observe in C# is that, after declaring a variable, before using it, it must have been initialized. Here are examples of initializing variables: using System; class Program { static int Main() { short sNumber = 225; int iNumber = 847779; double dNumber = 9710.275D; decimal mNumber = 35292742.884295M; Console.WriteLine("Short Integer: {0}", sNumber); Console.WriteLine("Integral Number: {0}", iNumber); Console.WriteLine("DoublePrecision: {0}", dNumber); Console.WriteLine("Extended Precision: {0}", mNumber); return 0; } } This would produce: Short Integer: 225 Integral Number: 847779 DoublePrecision: 9710.275 Extended Precision: 35292742.884295 Press any key to continue . . . When initializing a variable using a constant, you decide whether it is negative, 0 or positive. This is referred to as its sign. If you are getting the value of a variable some other way, you may not know its sign. Although you can use comparison operators to find this out, the Math class provides a method to check it out for you. To find out about the sign of a value or a numeric variable, you can call the Math.Sign() method. It is overloaded in various versions whose syntaxes are: public static int Sign(sbyte value); public static int Sign(short value); public static int Sign(int value); public static int Sign(long value); public static int Sign(sbyte value); public static int Sign(double value); public static int Sign(decimal value); When calling this method, pass the value or the variable you want to consider, as argument. The method returns:
Here are examples of calling the method: using System; class Program { static int Main() { short sNumber = 225; int iNumber = 847779; double dNumber = 9710.275D; decimal mNumber = 35292742.884295M; Console.WriteLine("Number: {0} => Sign: {1}", sNumber, Math.Sign(sNumber)); Console.WriteLine("Number: {0} => Sign: {1}", iNumber, Math.Sign(iNumber)); Console.WriteLine("Number: {0} => Sign: {1}", dNumber, Math.Sign(dNumber)); Console.WriteLine("Number: {0} => Sign: {1}\n", mNumber, Math.Sign(mNumber)); return 0; } } This would produce: Number: 225 => Sign: 1 Number: 847779 => Sign: 1 Number: 9710.275 => Sign: 1 Number: 35292742.884295 => Sign: 1 Press any key to continue . . .
As reviewed in Lesson 1, when dealing with a floatingpoint number, it consists of an integral side and a precision side; both are separated by a symbol which, in US English, is the period. In some operations, you may want to get the integral side of the value. The Math class can assist you with this. To get the integral part of a decimal number, the Math class can assist you with the Trancate() method, which is overloaded in two versions whose syntaxes are: public static double Truncate(double d); public static double Truncate(double d); When calling this method, pass it a number or a variable of float, double, or decimal type. The method returns the int side of the value. Here is an example of calling it: using System; class Program { static int Main() { float number = 225.75f; Console.WriteLine("The integral part of {0} is {1}\n", number, Math.Truncate(number)); return 0; } } This would produce: The integral part of 225.75 is 225 Press any key to continue . . .
If you have two numbers, you can find the minimum of both without writing your own code. To assist you with this, the Math class is equipped with a method named Min. This method is overloaded in various versions with each version adapted to each integral or floatingpoint data type. The syntaxes are: public static byte Min(byte val1, byte val2); public static sbyte Min(sbyte val1, sbyte val2); public static short Min(short val1, short val2); public static ushort Min(ushort val1, ushort val2); public static int Min(int val1, int val2); public static uint Min(uint val1, uint val2); public static float Min(float val1, float val2); public static long Min(long val1, long val2); public static ulong Min(ulong val1, ulong val2); public static double Min(double val1, double val2); public static decimal Min(decimal val1, decimal val2); Here is an example of calling the method: using System; class Program { static int Main() { int number1 = 8025; int number2 = 73; Console.WriteLine("The minimum of {0} and {1} is {2}", number1, number2, Math.Min(number1, number2)); return 0; } } This would produce: The minimum of 8025 and 73 is 73 Press any key to continue . . .
As opposed to the minimum of two numbers, you may be interested in the higher of both. To help you find the maximum of two numbers, you can call the Max() method of the Math class. It is overloaded in various versions with one of each type of numeric data. The syntaxes of this method are: public static byte Max(byte val1, byte val2); public static sbyte Max(sbyte val1, sbyte val2); public static short Max(short val1, short val2); public static ushort Max(ushort val1, ushort val2); public static int Max(int val1, int val2); public static uint Max(uint val1, uint val2); public static float Max(float val1, float val2); public static long Max(long val1, long val2); public static ulong Max(ulong val1, ulong val2); public static double Max(double val1, double val2); public static decimal Max(decimal val1, decimal val2); Here is an example of calling the method: using System; class Program { static int Main() { int number1 = 8025; int number2 = 73; Console.WriteLine("The maximum of {0} and {1} is {2}", number1, number2, Math.Max(number1, number2)); return 0; } } This would produce: The maximum of 8025 and 73 is 8025 Press any key to continue . . . 


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